Author Topic: In recent years we have seen bleached dead coral reefs  (Read 202 times)


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In recent years we have seen bleached dead coral reefs
« on: May 02, 2018, 11:38:55 pm »
WARSAW Anton Tinnerholm Sweden Jersey , Sept. 26 (Xinhua) -- The Polish government has agreed todeal with the issue of WWII reparations from Germany and wants todiscuss the matter with the German government, Prime Minister BeataSzydlo said after a cabinet meeting on Tuesday.

After the Sejm (lower house) legislation bureau released itsexpert opinion showing the possibility to claim war reparationsfrom Germany, the government plans to issue an opinion on thematter, Szydlo said.

""I believe such an opinion will be prepared shortly and then wewill be able to discuss the facts,"" she said.

""I believe there is nothing special in it. On the contrary, itis simply justice that Poland deserves. Let us not be afraid tobring up seemingly difficult issues on the international forum. Wedo realize the subject is not easy Alexander Fransson Sweden Jersey , but there are very many suchnot very easy discussions taking place in Europe every day,"" saidSzydlo.

The war reparations issue was brought up in July by JaroslawKaczynski, leader of Poland's governing Law and Justice Party.

At the time, Kaczynski was backed on the matter by PolishDefense Minister Antoni Macierewicz, who claimed that from thelegal point of view Germany still owed war reparations toPoland.

The German government, however Adam Lundqvist Sweden Jersey , dismissed Poland's claims,saying the war reparations issue had already been settled, afterPoland made a binding decision in August 1953 ""to relinquishdemands for further war reparations"". Enditem

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By Yu Fei, Li Mengxin and Liu Deng

HAIKOU, Oct. 23 (Xinhua) -- Deep in the silent sea, Huang Hui can hear only bubbles gurgling from her oxygen tank. She can only see a few meters around her Viktor Claesson World Cup Jersey , feeling small and alone.

She plants corals, the size of her palm, on the seafloor, hoping they one day become a forest.

If her dream is realized, the forest will have vivid colors, with fish weaving in and out.

A coral biologist with the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology under the Chinese Academy of Sciences Sebastian Holmen World Cup Jersey , Huang has studied coral for around 20 years. Now she and her team are building a large pilot zone and a demonstration area for coral planting in the South China Sea.

Chinese coral biologists are building a large pilot zone and a demonstration area for coral planting in the South China Sea Chinese coral biologists are building a large pilot zone and a demonstration area for coral planting in the South China Sea Chinese coral biologists are building a large pilot zone and a demonstration area for coral planting in the South China Sea

Coral is hailed as rain forest or life engine of the sea. Though it covers less than two thousandths of the seafloor area, it is the habitat of nearly 30 percent of marine species, making coral reefs among the most diverse ecosystems on the planet.

Globally coral provides a living for half a billion people, generating billions of dollars of revenue from tourism and fishing. The South China Sea accounts for 2.57 percent of the resources around the globe, ranking eighth in the world.

Corals require precise living conditions: water can neither be too hot nor too cold Sebastian Eriksson World Cup Jersey , the ideal temperature ranging from 23 to 27 degrees centigrade; hydraulic pressure cannot be too high; salinity must be moderate and stable; and the environment must be clean.

Corals have a symbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae algae, which live in coral and give it nutrition and color. If the environment is unsuitable, the zooxanthellae algae leave, and the coral turns white and dies.

Coral reef degradation tolls the alarm bell of climate change. More than a third of the world's coral reefs are severely degraded. Contributing factors include warmer waters, ocean acidification, seawater pollution Patrik Carlgren World Cup Jersey , increased UV radiation, destructive fishing and offshore construction. Scientists once predicted corals would be wiped out within 50 years, triggering a breakdown of the entire ocean ecosystem.

Huang still remembers the first time she went underwater. It was in 2002 in the South China Sea, and she saw thickets of corals, dotted with fish, lobsters Pa Konate World Cup Jersey , holothurians and echinus. ""It was stunning and exciting,"" she recalls.

Her team has investigatedall the coral reefs in China. They have corrected and added to many records. They found China has almost 300 kinds of coral.

However, Huang says, ""In recent years we have seen bleached dead coral reefs in many places, which always saddens me.""

Scientists are now wondering if corals can be planted on the seabed much like trees on land to significantly expand the acreage of coral reefs.

Huang and her team have been trying to cultivate coral on a small scale since 2009. After numerous failures, little by little they learned how to grow various corals in different undersea environments.

Huang uses afforestation on land as an analogy for coral planting. First Nicklas Barkroth World Cup Jersey , they grow a seedling in the nursery. When it becomes a sapling, they transplant it to where it's needed. First they cultivate the fast-growing species, and then foster the enduring ones.

Corals can reproduce through both asexual and sexual propagation. During the reproduction season, scientists can work underwater for days to acquire fertilized eggs for further study. They have acquired the technology for artificial fertilization of more than 10 coral species.

Chinese scientists also conduct research on asexual propagation. They cut coral reefs into finger-sized branches, and after some cultivation, stick them to artificial coral banks undersea.

They nail down racks on the seabed and hang ropes

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